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To understand mechanisms of cytotoxic chemotherapy it is imperative to understand cancer cell biology. The two characteristic features which define cancer or malignant neoplasms are unregulated cell growth and invasion or metastasis.

Cell Division:

The mechanism of cell division is the same in all dividing cells. The cell cycle is divided into four phases. During M phase, the replicated chromosomes are separated and packaged into two new nuclei by mitosis, and the cytoplasm is divided between the two daughter cells by cytokinesis.

Cell Cycle:

The other three phases of the cell cycle are: G1 (Gap 1) during which cells commit to DNA synthesis, S (DNA synthesis) during which genetic material is replicated, and G2 (Gap 2) during which the fidelity of DNA replication is assessed and errors are corrected.



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